There are different regulations all around the world, which specify how people can use LoraWAN with ISM bands in their countries. In this article we are going to explore the detailed deployment of LoraWAN in these different regions. Accoring to LoRaWAN Regional Parameters V1.0, we categorize these regions into four sectors: EU, US, China and World.

 LoraWAN regulations in EU

Currently there are several channels can be used in Europe to both transmit and receive. The specific channel lists are detailed in this document ETSI EN 300 220-2 V3.1.0 : As we mentioned in our previous blog posts, the channels are listed in the following picture:

eu

 

Now LoraWAN protocol enforces the use of g1, and the other channels can be defined by the network operator. There are three channels in g1 for bandwidth 125kHz:

  • 868.1MHz
  • 868.3MHz
  • 868.5MHz

In Europe, there is a optional field in the join response, in which the server can let the end device to know the rest of five channel frequency list. Once it is provided by the server ,the end device will update this five channel frequency list that it will use. Along with the pre-defined three channels in g1, it can use more channels to avoid collision.


 In India there is no clear statment about which channels to use, but LoraWAN specified the following channels for India between 865-867MHz:

Channel  Frequency(MHz) 
 0  865.4
 1  865.6
 2  865.8
 3  866.0
 4   866.2
 5  866.4
 6  866.6
 7  866.8

 

 The join channels of the end device is not standarized in India, it is expected that there will be a regulation document about the default join channels that all the network operators should support.

 

The data rate that can be used in EU and India are listed in the following table:

 

Data Rate  Spreading Factor& Bandwidth 
 0  SF12 & BW125kHZ
 1  SF11 & BW125kHZ
 2  SF10 & BW125kHZ
 3  SF9 & BW125kHZ
 4   SF8 & BW125kHZ
 5  SF7 & BW125kHZ
 6  SF7 & BW250kHZ
 7  GFSK: 50kbps

 

 

 LoraWAN regulations in US

The most important topic in US is the hybrid mode that speficied by FCC, which regulates how ISM band devices in 915MHz can send packets. There are 64 channels are used by BW125 and the rest 8 channels for uplink are used by BW500. The downlink channels can use BW500 to send packets to nodes.

us

The maximum output power for the BW125 is +30dBm, and the maximum output power for BW500 is +26dBm.

The data rate that can be used is less than EU, SF12 can only be used with BW500. This is because that FCC has a regulation on the time on air, which is 400ms.

Data Rate  Spreading Factor& Bandwidth 
 0  SF10 & BW125kHZ
 1  SF9 & BW125kHZ
 2  SF8 & BW125kHZ
 3  SF7 & BW125kHZ
 4   SF8 & BW500kHZ
 8  SF12 & BW500kHZ
 9  SF11 & BW500kHZ
 10  SF10 & BW500kHZ
 11  SF9 & BW500kHZ
 12  SF8 & BW500kHZ
 13  SF7 & BW500kHZ

 

 

FCC regulation requires hopping over at least 50 channels when using maximum output power. It is possible to have end-devices with less channels (at least six 125 kHz channels) when limiting the end device transmit power to 21 dBm.

The maximum MACpayload size of Data Rate 0 is limited to 19 bytes.

The RX1 window is not identical to the TX channel in this region! There is a formular to calculate the RX window channel:

RX1 channel number = TX channel number mod 8

And the data rate of the RX1 is depended on the TX data rate, take DR0 as an example: When TX is sent through DR0, the RX1 should use DR10 to receive the data. If TX is DR3 or DR4, the RX1 should both be DR13.

US ED

 

 LoraWAN regulations over the world

 Firstly let's take a look at Australia 915-928 MHz band, which uses similar deployment as US 902-928. The uplink channels are 64+8 as well, and the downlink channels are 8, which overlaps with the uplink channels and starts from DR4.

AU

 

The output power is limited to 30dBm. When BW125 is used, the frequency hop should have minimal 20 channels to perform. The end device should change channel for every transmission.

The data rate that can be used in Australia is listed below:

Data Rate  Spreading Factor& Bandwidth 
 0  SF10 & BW125kHZ
 1  SF9 & BW125kHZ
 2  SF8 & BW125kHZ
 3  SF7 & BW125kHZ
 4   SF8 & BW500kHZ
 8  SF12 & BW500kHZ
 9  SF11 & BW500kHZ
 10  SF10 & BW500kHZ
 11  SF9 & BW500kHZ
 12  SF8 & BW500kHZ
 13  SF7 & BW500kHZ

 

The maxiumum payload size for DR0 is limited to 19 bytes. The receive window configuration is the same as the US regulations, namly:

The RX1 window is not identical to the TX channel in this region! There is a formular to calculate the RX window channel:

RX1 channel number = TX channel number mod 8

And the data rate of the RX1 is depended on the TX data rate, take DR0 as an example: When TX is sent through DR0, the RX1 should use DR10 to receive the data. If TX is DR3 or DR4, the RX1 should both be DR13.

US ED


South Korea uses 920-923MHz for LoraWAN, it supports 16 channels, and the RX window channels are identical to the TX channel, the datarate is calculated based on the RX offset.

The most important difference is South Korea supports Listen-Before-Talk AFA, so it can supports more nodes.

 

LoraWAN also defined the AS923, which can be used in the following countries with the specific frequencies:

 

Frequency(MHz)  Country 
 923-925  Brunei
 923-925  Cambodia
 920-925  HongKong
 923-925  Indonesia
 920-925  Japan
 923-925  Laos
 915-928  New Zealand
 920-925  Singapore
 922-928  Taiwan
 920-925  Thailand
 920-925  Vietnam

 

They define two compulsory channels in these regions: 923.2 and 923.4 MHz, which can only use 1% of the duty cycle to join the network. And the rest of the channels can be distributed freely by the operators.

The output power is limited to 14dBm. Since there is 400ms time on air in these regions, the end devices can only use SF10BW125 to join the network, which is DR2.

The data rate that are allowed in these regions are:

Data Rate  Spreading Factor& Bandwidth 
 0  SF12 & BW125kHZ
 1  SF11 & BW125kHZ
 2  SF10 & BW125kHZ
 3  SF9 & BW125kHZ
 4   SF8 & BW125kHZ
 5  SF7 & BW125kHZ
 6  SF7 & BW250kHZ
 7  GFSK: 50kbps

 

There is also a channel frequency list in the join response to the end devices, which sepcifies five extra channels that the network is currently using.

The size of the maximum payload size is 59 bytes for DR0.

The uplink and downlink channels are identical while the data rate should be calculated based on the time on air (dwell time).

 


LoraWAN regulations in China

 There are two bands in China that can be used for LPWAN, Semtech adopted 470-510MHz for LoraWAN.

In total there are 96 channels are used in uplink with BW125 and 48 channels in downlink with BW125.

CHN

 

Chinese radio committe regulates the output power to 17dBm and the end devices should use the 14dBm default power setting.

The datarate that can be used in China are:

 

Data Rate  Spreading Factor& Bandwidth 
 0  SF12 & BW125kHZ
 1  SF11 & BW125kHZ
 2  SF10 & BW125kHZ
 3  SF9 & BW125kHZ
 4   SF8 & BW125kHZ
 5  SF7 & BW125kHZ

 The channel mask and the payload size are similar to the EU band and US band.

And the RX window channel is different from the TX channel due to the different channels are used. The fomular is :

 RX1 channel number = TX channel number mod 48

 

RX window 2 is fixed at 505.3 MHz with DR0.

 For example, an end device sending DR0 packet with channel 50 wil listen to channel 2 for RX.

CHN ED